You are made up of cells. If you look at yourself in a mirror you are actually looking at your cell parts. Your body (dependent on your size and age) is made up of 10 to 100 trillion cells as adult. For an example look at your little finger and recognize that it may be holding one to two billions of your cells. Cells are not large. They may be shaped slightly different from each other (organ cells to red blood cells) but the thing in common is they are cells and require the same enzymes and oxygen.
At any given moment, enzymes are doing all of the work being done inside any cell. If you understand enzymes, you understand cells. A human cell has about 20,000 different types of enzymes floating around in the cytoplasm (gel like substance holding the cell together) like a bag.
Enzymes have extremely interesting properties that make them little chemical-reaction machines. The purpose of an enzyme in a cell is to allow the cell to carry out chemical reactions very quickly. As an example the enzymes utilize nutrients and produce 100,000 different actions every second. These reactions allow the cell to build things or take things apart as needed. This is how a cell grows and reproduces. At the most basic level, a cell is really a little bag full of chemical reactions that are made possible by enzymes!
Enzymes in your body are made from amino acids, and they are proteins. When an enzyme is formed, stringing together between 100 and 1,000 amino acids in a very specific and unique order makes it an enzyme. The chain of amino acids then folds into a unique shape. That shape allows the enzyme to carry out specific chemical reactions – an enzyme acts as a very efficient catalyst for a specific chemical reaction. The enzyme tremendously speeds that reaction up.
You may have heard of people who are lactose intolerant, or you may suffer from this problem yourself. The problem arises because the sugar in milk (lactose) does not get broken into its glucose components. Therefore, it cannot be digested. The intestinal cells of lactose-intolerant people do not produce lactase, the enzyme needed to break down lactose. This problem shows how the lack of just one enzyme in the human body can lead to problems. A person who is lactose intolerant can swallow a capsule with lactase prior to drinking milk and the problem is solved.
Inside a cell there are around 20,000 types of enzymes (lactase being just one of them). All of the enzymes float freely in the cytoplasm (gel like substance in the cell membrane) waiting for the chemical (nutrient) they recognize to float by so they can utilize it. There are hundreds or millions of copies of each different type of enzyme, depending on how important a reaction is to a cell and how often the reaction is needed. These enzymes do everything from breaking glucose down for energy to building cell walls, constructing new enzymes and allowing the cell to reproduce. Enzymes do all of the work inside cells and it takes 13,000 enzymes just to build one human cell.
Making Enzymes the Miracle of Life
As long as a cell’s membrane is intact and it is making all of the enzymes it needs to function properly, the cell is “alive”. The enzymes it needs to function properly allow the cell to create energy from glucose, construct the pieces that make up its cell wall, reproduce and of course, produce new enzymes. I must mention here that if the cell does not have what it needs it will die (implode) called hemolysis.
So where do all of these enzymes come from? And how does the cell produce them when it needs them? If a cell is just a collection of enzymes causing chemical reactions that make the cell do what it does, then how can a set of chemical reactions create the enzymes it needs, and how can the cell reproduce? Where does the miracle of life come from?
At the beginning of each of our lives while yet just an embryo (within the very beginning of our life) we are given an instruction book specific for each one of us. This instruction book contains an estimated 20,000 to 25,000 genes carrying 3 billion bits of genetic information instructing our DNA just how it is to make our proteins (enzymes) for life.
The answer to these questions lies in the DNA, which guides the cell in its production of new enzymes. DNA is a carrier of genetic information. Think about it as just a working model made up of four different parts. Now imagine a set of blocks that has only four different shapes, or an alphabet that has only four different letters. DNA is a long string of blocks or letters that spells out your information.
A human’s DNA is about 3 billion blocks long. Just so you can get an idea of what that means it is the equivalent of nearly 70 trips from the earth to the sun and back. It is tightly wrapped into 23 structures called chromosomes to pack it more tightly to fit it inside a cell. The amazing thing to me is that the DNA is nothing more than a self-replicating pattern or recipe that tells the cell how to make its proteins! That is all that DNA does. It carries the template (instructions) on how to form an enzyme.
Enzymes at Work
There are all sorts of enzymes at work inside of human cells, and many of them are incredibly interesting! Cells use enzymes internally to grow, reproduce, create energy, rid the cell of waste and they often excrete enzymes outside their cell walls as well.
- Energy enzymes – A set of 10 different enzymes allows a cell to perform glycolysis. Another eight enzymes control the Krebs cycle (citric-acid cycle). These two processes together allow a cell to turn glucose and oxygen into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) energy! In an oxygen-consuming human cell, one glucose molecule forms 36 ATP molecules. ATP is the fuel that is able to power enzymes by performing chemical reactions.
- DNA-manipulation enzymes – There are specialized enzymes that move along DNA strands and repair them. There are other enzymes that can untwist DNA strands to reproduce them (DNA polymerase). DNA polymerase is our most accurate or valuable enzyme, for a good reason. It is the keeper of our most precious resource: our genetic information. DNA polymerase takes our DNA, gently unwinds it, and builds a complementary mate to each strand. Still other enzymes can find small patterns on DNA and attach to them, blocking access to that section of DNA (DNA-binding proteins).
- Enzyme-production enzymes – All of these enzymes have to come from somewhere, so there are enzymes that produce the cell’s enzymes! RNA (Ribonucleic acid), in three different forms named (messenger RNA, transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA), is a big part of the process.
- Supplemental oral enzymes – We ingest these enzymes with a meal such as supplemental digestive enzymes to assist in the proper digestion of foods. Proteolytic enzymes created for the pH of the blood work systemically (systemic means affecting the whole body, or at least multiple organ systems). We can take these proteases between meals for improved circulation and toxic cleanup.
A cell really is nothing but a set of chemical reactions, and enzymes make those reactions happen properly.
NOTE: One of the most important things our body does is to continue the process of building our proteins/enzymes.
Why I start with digestion when someone has a disease:
When the body releases partially digested food remnants into the system, it creates at least three major pathological problems.
(1) These food remnants become irritants, causing inflammation of the mucosal wall of the intestines that in turn releases powerful and damaging chemicals. These chemicals injure the intestinal wall enough to increase its permeability. The “foreign proteins” in the undigested food can leak directly into the lymphatic channels of the intestinal wall and gain access to the body’s entire circulation system. Here they are considered foreign objects, so the defense mechanism mobilizes an attack by the fighter cells of the immune system. Ultimately, the battle-weary soldiers begin to run out of fuel and fail to reproduce sufficient numbers of white cells.
(2) Food remnants also provide fuel for the overgrowth of fermentative fungal organisms such as Candida albicans and other parasites that further drain the immune system.
(3) The general inflammation brought about by these wandering particles causes metabolic reactions that consume large amounts of oxygen. This produces free radicals that damage cell membranes. It is sufficient to say that the combined effects of poor digestion and errant food remnants clearly work together. They bring about a vicious sequence of events that leads to an obvious and progressive weakening of the immune system. Below is the listing of seven stages leading to disease.
STAGE ONE: This is characterized by approximately 95% lifestyle and/or environmental factors.
STAGE TWO: The choices above when not corrected appropriately, will progressively overwhelm the system and create this stage.
STAGE THREE: Progression to stage three involves the pH imbalances and a definite deterioration to the biological terrain. Cellular activity is compromised.
STAGE FOUR: The continuance of constant toxicity has created a depressed environment in the body and the symptoms increase.
STAGE FIVE: The on-set of the actual disease due to organ deterioration and functional impairment.
STAGE SIX: The ability of the body has now given way to degenerative diseases and major system dysfunction occurs.
STAGE SEVEN: The body is now being overwhelmed by disease.